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Citing Sources - APA

Citing Sources - APA


Eletronic reference guides and sources will have your most up to date information on APA formatting.


EasyBib and Citation Machine are two examples of interactive web tools designed to assist high school, college, and university students, their teachers, and independent researchers in their effort to respect other people's intellectual properties.  Always check with your teacher to make sure you are using the correct edition and formatting requirements.


Purdue Online Writing Lab - APA style and formatting guides



These examples (journal formats, journals with multiple authors, electronic sources, books, article in a book, dissertation, personal communication) were designed according to the Fifth Edition of the APA Publication Manual.  Format changes introduced in the Fifth Edition include the use of the hanging indentations (not shown) in the reference list and the use of italics (rather than underlining) for titles of larger works.

We have attempted to reflect these Fifth Edition changes on our website.  You should also visit APA's official website for further descriptions of these changes.

Journal formats

Abram, S., & Luther, J. (2004). Born with the chip: The next generation will profoundly impact both library service and the culture within the profession. Library Journal, 129(8), 34-37.

Agosto, D. E. (2002a). Bounded rationality and satisfying in young people's web-based decision making. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(1), 16-27.

Agosto, D. E. (2002b). A model of young people's decision-making in using the Web. Library & Information Science Research, 24 (2002), 311-341.

Bates, J. A. (2004). Use of narrative interviewing in everyday information behavior research. Library & Information Science Research, 26(1), 15-28.

Bates, M. J. (1989). The design of browsing and berrypicking techniques for the online search interface. Online Review, 13(5), 407-431.

Bilal, D. (2002a). Children's use of the Yahooligans! Web search engine. II. Cognitive and physical behaviors on research tasks. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(2), 118-136.

Bilal, D. (2002b). Children's use of the Yahooligans! Web search engine. III. Cognitive and physical behaviors on fully self-generated search tasks. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(13), 1170-1183.

Bilal, D. & Kirby, J. (2002). Differences and similarities in information seeking children and adults as Web users. Information Processing and Management, 38(5), 649-670.

Borgman, C. L., Hirsh, S. G., Walter, V. A., & Gallagher, A. L. (1995). Children's searching behavior on browsing and keyword online catalogs: The Science Library Catalog project. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 46(9), 663-684.

Branch, J. (2000). Investigating the information-seeking processes of adolescents: The value of using think alouds and think afters. Library & Information Science Research, 22(4), 371-392.

Branch, J. (2001). Junior high students and think alouds: Generating information-seeking process data using concurrent verbal protocols. Library & Information Science Research, 23(2), 107-122.


Journal article with multiple authors

Levin, D., Arafeh, S., Lenhart, A., & Rainie, L. (2002). The digital disconnect: The widening gap between internet-savvy students and their schools. Pew Internet & American Life Project   Retrieved Sept. 30, 2004, from

From a journal article with more than six authors

Fidel, R., Davies, R. K., Douglass, M. H., Holder, J. K., Hopkins, C. J., Kushner, E. J., et al. (1999). A visit to the information mall: Web searching behavior of high school students. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(1), 24-37.


From an electronic source

Belkin, N. J. (2003). Interface techniques for making searching for information more effective.  Retrieved October 4, 2004 from http://home.earthlink.net/~searchworkshop/docs/belkin-final.pdf

De Rosa, C., Dempsey, L., & Wilson, A. (2003). 2003 OCLC Environmental Scan: Pattern recognition. Retrieved October 1, 2004 from http://www.oclc.org/membership/escan/introduction/default.htm

Eisenberg, Michael & Berkowitz, B. The Big6. (n.d.). Retrieved October 1, 2004, from http://www.big6.com/

Gross, M. (2001). Imposed information seeking in public libraries and school library media centers: A common behaviour? Information Research, 6(2).

Record no. 100.  Retrieved September 20, 2004 from http://informationr.net/ir/8-2/paper100.html

Kalbach, J. (2003). "I'm feeling lucky": The role of emotions in seeking information on the Web. Retrieved September 29, 2004 from http://home.earthlink.net/~searchworkshop/docs/JKalbach_Emotions-InformationSeeking-Web_short21.pdf

Prensky, M. (1998). Twich speed: Keeping up with young workers. Retrieved on October 15, 2004 from http://www.twitchspeed.com/site/article.html


From a book

Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Jonassen, D. H., & Grabowski, B. (1993). Individual differences and instruction. New York: Allen & Bacon.

Marchionini, G. (1995). Cambridge series on human-computer interaction: Information seeking in electronic environments. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Tapscott, D. (1997). Growing up digital: The rise of the net generation. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Article in a book

Hirsh, S. G. (2004). Domain knowledge and children's search behavior. In M. K. Chelton & C. Cool (Eds.), Youth information-seeking behavior (pp. 241-270). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow.



Mancall, J. C. (1979). Resources used by high school students in preparing independent study projects: A bibliometric approach. (Doctoral dissertation, Drexel University, 1979) ProQuest Digital Dissertations, AAT 7905069.

McGregor, J. H. (1993). Cognitive processes and the use of information: A qualitative study of higher order thinking skills used in the research process by students in a gifted program., (Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University, 1993). ProQuest Digital Dissertations, AAT 9332310.


Personal Communications

Personal communications are letters, email, discussion group archives, personal interviews, telephone and in-person conversations. Because they are not "recoverable data," you should not include them in your reference list. You should include them in text.

In biology lab, Chandler Coleman shared the results of his experiment regarding the use of fruit flies in studying alcohol tolerance (personal communication, November 18, 2005). 

New research suggests fruit flies may be used to examine various forms of tolerance to addictive substances (C. Coleman and M. Zeman, personal communication, November 19, 2004).